Publications et documents de travail
23/04/14
- revues scientifiques
    John Bagnall, David Bounie, Kim P. Huynh, Anneke Kosse, Tobias Schmidt, Scott D. Schuh and Helmut Stix
Consumer Cash Usage: A Cross-Country Comparison with Payment Diary Survey Data
We measure consumers’ use of cash by harmonizing payment diary surveys from seven countries. The seven diary surveys were conducted in 2009 (Canada), 2010 (Australia), 2011 (Austria, France, Germany and the Netherlands), and 2012 (the United States). Our paper finds cross-country differences – for example, the level of cash usage differs across countries. Cash has not disappeared as a payment instrument, especially for low-value transactions. We also find that the use of cash is strongly correlated with transaction size, demographics, and point-of-sale characteristics such as merchant card acceptance and venue.
28/03/14
- revues scientifiques
    Yassine Bouhdaoui, David Bounie and Abel Francois
Convenient Prices, Cash Payments and Price Rigidity
Recent works suggest that convenient prices that match monetary denominations exhibit above-average price rigidity and are set up by firms that have incentives to be paid in cash. The relationship between convenient prices and cash usage has however never been explicitly examined. This paper proposes a model that relates convenient prices to cash usage and exploits to test it a unique dataset in 2011 on cash payments and prices by a representative sample of French consumers. In line with the model, estimation results bring direct evidence that individuals’ shares of cash payments increase with convenient prices. This finding confirms that price rigidity can be in part explained by the use of cash to pay convenient prices.
06/03/14
- revues scientifiques
    David Bounie and Abel François
Vers une économie des paiements électroniques
L’industrie des paiements connaît de profondes évolutions en raison des innovations technologiques majeures que sont les paiements sans contact sur carte ou mobile, les paiements sur Internet… Pourtant, en dépit de ces évolutions, il existe peu de données publiques disponibles qui rendent compte de ces évolutions. Ce papier exploite et compare des bases de données originales sur les comportements de paiement de deux échantillons représentatifs de la population française en 2005 et 2011. Les évolutions montrent clairement que la carte bancaire est le seul moyen de paiement dont l’usage a progressé entre 2005 et 2011 au détriment des espèces et du chèque respectivement sur les achats de petits et de gros montants. Cette évolution s’explique par une recomposition du parc des cartes privatives et bancaires suite aux changements réglementaires sur le co-branding et le crédit à la consommation, une évolution de l’acceptation de la carte au sein des commerces, une électronisation des modes d’achats et un double effet de génération. Si les rythmes de progression observés entre 2005 et 2011 se maintiennent, nous prévoyons que la carte, préférée aux espèces et aux chèques pour des paiements supérieurs à 20 € depuis la fin des années 2000, dominera également les achats de très petits montants, inférieurs à 5 €, à l’horizon des années 2030.
14/01/14
- documents de travail
    Carlos A. Arango, Yassine Bouhdaoui, David Bounie, Martina Eschelbach and Lola Hernández
Cash Management and Payment Choices: A Simulation Model with International Comparisons
Despite various payment innovations, today, cash is still heavily used to pay for low-value purchases. This paper develops a simulation model to test whether standard implications of the theory on cash management and payment choices can explain the use of payment instruments by transaction size. In particular, using diary survey data from Canada, France, Germany and the Netherlands, we test the assumption that cash is still the most efficient payment instrument, and the idea that people hold cash for precautionary reasons when facing uncertainty about their future purchases. The results of the simulations show that these two factors are significant determinants of the high shares of low-value cash payments in Canada, France and Germany. Yet, they are not so crucial in the Netherlands, which exhibits a significant share of low-value card transactions. We discuss how the differences in payment markets across countries may explain the performance of the model.
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